How to Find Water and Filter and Purify or Distill Using the Sun
The Basic 'Layer' Water Filter
Not only must you know how to purify water you must also learn how to filter it properly first.
Water must be filtered to remove waterborne cysts that can harbour and protect bacteria from chemical treatment or even boiling. The cysts can be described as micro sized seedpods that can withstand high temperatures. Filtering will remove these cysts along with pesticides, herbicides, sediment, insects and other debris.
Filtering mediums include charcoal, sand, gravel, cloth, cheesecloth and coffee filters. Layer the filtering mediums with the finer material as the bottom layer to filter out the microorganisms.
Use any food can with a hole in the bottom, plastic soda bottle or any suitable device that did not contain chemicals or other toxins.
Next, pour the water into a vessel for boiling or into your container for chemical treatment.
Allow the water to rapid boil for one minute if at sea level and if you suspect you are above sea level boil for three minutes. Water boils at a lower temperature at higher elevations because of the reduced air pressure thus, the extended boil time.
Boiling longer than the recommended times will cause you to lose water volume through evaporation; this can be problematic if you have a limited source.
For every 152 meters / 500 feet above sea level, water's boiling point is reduced by one degree.
Before setting out on any outdoor adventure,
make sure you know how to purify water
before you find yourself in a survival situation.
You now know how to purify water but before you can get started, you have to find water first. You may not always have a river, stream, lake or pond next to your campsite in fact you may have to dig for it or collect it using other methods that will be described but first how to dig for water -
Dry wash or shallow gullies can be a source of water, particularly if there is green vegetation along the sides. These washes usually have water flowing at various times. In the dryer seasons, the flow diminishes or stops completely but there can be water just below the surface.
Note the green vegetation in this arid environment. The plant life could not survive on the rock outcropping unless there was a water source just below the surface. You may find a natural spring is seeping through a fissure in the rocks and is filling up a small cistern. In years past people constructed cisterns to collect spring water, pooled water made is easier to collect. Any water collected from a cistern must be purified; animals will use the source as well and will have contaminated it.
Transpiration simply means to lose water vapour.
Plants lose water vapour through their epidermal pores or their stomata located on their leaves. Technically this a gas exchange in plants.
Plants absorb carbon dioxide and through transpiration exchange that gas for oxygen, which is present in the vapour they lose through their stomata.
Plastic bags a weight (small stone) for the bag and some string are needed to collect water using this method.
The vapour given off by the leaves will condense on the sides of the bag and drip toward the weight placed in the bag.
Clear plastic is ideal because it allows the sun's rays to strike the leaves.
This is a way to collect moisture from the soil using a solar water distiller. Materials needing are a digging tool, collection cup, sheet of clear plastic and a small rock for a weight.
Evaporated water is purified so you do not need to know how to purify water collected with this method.
Dig out a small depression and make sure the plastic can cover it with plenty of overlap on the sides. Once excavated place a collection cup in the centre of the depression and fill the hole in with green vegetation.
Place the plastic over the top and secure along the sides with the excavated soil or rocks.
Place the small rock over the collection cup that is under the plastic and put a small hole in the plastic over the cup. The weight creates a depression to allow water to flow toward the hole.
The sun will essentially "sweat" the moisture from the soil and vegetation. As the moisture evaporates, it will condense on the top side of the plastic and begin to flow toward the hole and begin dripping into the collection cup.
Knowing as many of the old bushcraft water filtering methods is essential for all preppers.
But we are in the 21st century folks..!
Modern water filters are the way to be fully prepared.
Don't get caught out - get prepared first.
Happy Prepping Folks.